Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering

Papers
(The TQCC of Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering is 9. The table below lists those papers that are above that threshold based on CrossRef citation counts [max. 250 papers]. The publications cover those that have been published in the past four years, i.e., from 2020-06-01 to 2024-06-01.)
ArticleCitations
Restraint of Particle Breakage by Biotreatment Method115
Group Performance of Energy Piles under Cyclic and Variable Thermal Loading96
SS-XGBoost: A Machine Learning Framework for Predicting Newmark Sliding Displacements of Slopes67
Development of Subsurface Geological Cross-Section from Limited Site-Specific Boreholes and Prior Geological Knowledge Using Iterative Convolution XGBoost62
A Binary Packing Material–Based Procedure for Evaluating Soil Liquefaction Triggering during Earthquakes54
Protecting the Environment with Geosynthetics: 53rd Karl Terzaghi Lecture51
Practical Estimation of Compression Behavior of Clayey/Silty Sands Using Equivalent Void-Ratio Concept50
Toe-Bearing Capacity of Precast Concrete Piles through Biogrouting Improvement48
Crystal Growth of MICP through Microfluidic Chip Tests48
Biocementation Control of Sand against Wind Erosion48
Effects of Bacterial Density on Growth Rate and Characteristics of Microbial-Induced CaCO3 Precipitates: Particle-Scale Experimental Study48
Liquefaction Modeling for Biocemented Calcareous Sand46
Differential Settlement Prediction of Ballasted Tracks in Bridge–Embankment Transition Zones43
Load Transfer Method for Energy Piles in a Group with Pile–Soil–Slab–Pile Interaction43
Critical State Soil Mechanics for Cyclic Liquefaction and Postliquefaction Behavior: DEM study43
Centrifuge Modeling of Ground and Tunnel Responses to Nearby Excavation in Soft Clay40
Thermomechanical Behavior of Energy Piles and Interactions within Energy Pile–Raft Foundations40
Meter-Scale Biocementation Experiments to Advance Process Control and Reduce Impacts: Examining Spatial Control, Ammonium By-Product Removal, and Chemical Reductions39
Suppressing Ettringite-Induced Swelling of Gypseous Soil by Using Magnesia-Activated Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag38
Impact Dynamics of Boulder-Enriched Debris Flow on a Rigid Barrier38
Effect of Initial Density, Particle Shape, and Confining Stress on the Critical State Behavior of Weathered Gap-Graded Granular Soils36
Thermal Conductivity of Biocemented Graded Sands36
Effect of Stress Level on Response of Model Monopile to Cyclic Lateral Loading in Sand35
Effect of Particle Shape on Constitutive Relation: DEM Study35
Performance of a Belled Pile Influenced by Pile Head Freedom Response to a Cooling–Heating Cycle35
Experimental and Numerical Analysis of a Field Trial Application of Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation for Ground Stabilization34
Multiscale Study of Soil Stabilization Using Bacterial Biopolymers34
Large Deformation Finite-Element Simulation of Displacement-Pile Installation Experiments in Sand34
Evaluation of Factors Affecting Erodibility Improvement for MICP-Treated Beach Sand34
Liquefaction Susceptibility of Saturated Coral Sand Subjected to Various Patterns of Principal Stress Rotation33
Monotonic and Cyclic Frictional Resistance Directionality in Snakeskin-Inspired Surfaces and Piles33
Mitigation of Liquefaction Triggering and Foundation Settlement by MICP Treatment33
Memory-Enhanced Plasticity Modeling of Sand Behavior under Undrained Cyclic Loading33
Liquefaction Resistance of Biocemented Loess Soil33
Coupled TDA–Geocell Stress-Bridging System for Buried Corrugated Metal Pipes33
Forensic Geotechnical Analyses on the 2009 Building-Overturning Accident in Shanghai, China: Beyond Common Recognitions32
Assessment of Anomaly Detection Methods Applied to Microtunneling32
Influence of Particle Size Distribution on the Proportion of Stress-Transmitting Particles and Implications for Measures of Soil State31
Environmental Dependence of Microbially Induced Calcium Carbonate Crystal Precipitations: Experimental Evidence and Insights31
Effect of Light Biocementation on the Liquefaction Triggering and Post-Triggering Behavior of Loose Sands30
Laboratory Model Test of EPB Shield Tunneling in a Cobble-Rich Soil30
Influence of Fabric on Stress Distribution in Gap-Graded Soil30
Metamodel-Based Reliability Analysis in Spatially Variable Soils Using Convolutional Neural Networks30
Liquefaction Mitigation of Sands with Nonplastic Fines via Microbial-Induced Partial Saturation29
Effect of Temperature on the Cyclic Behavior of Clay–Structure Interface29
Evaluation of Roundness Parameters in Use for Sand28
Hydraulic Conductivity of Sand/Biopolymer-Amended Bentonite Backfills in Vertical Cutoff Walls Permeated with Lead Solutions28
Poisson’s Ratio Characteristic Curve of Unsaturated Soils28
Centrifuge Shaking Table Tests on Precast Underground Structure–Superstructure System in Liquefiable Ground27
Multiscale Modeling of Anchor Pullout in Sand27
Evolution of Dynamic Properties of Cross-Anisotropic Sand Subjected to Stress Anisotropy26
Granulometry of Two Marine Calcareous Sands26
Influence of Specimen Preparation on the Liquefaction Behaviors of Sand and Its Mesoscopic Explanation26
Effects of Strain History and Induced Anisotropy on Reliquefaction Resistance of Toyoura Sand26
Experimental Evidence of the Effectiveness and Applicability of Colloidal Nanosilica Grouting for Liquefaction Mitigation25
Fragility Functions for Liquefaction-Induced Ground Failure25
Biogrouting Method for Stronger Bond Strength for Aggregates25
Application of Critical State Approach to Liquefaction Resistance of Sand–Silt Mixtures under Cyclic Simple Shear Loading25
Monotonic, Cyclic, and Postcyclic Responses of an Alluvial Plastic Silt Deposit25
Field Implementation of Microbially Induced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation for Surface Erosion Reduction of a Coastal Plain Sandy Slope24
Temperature-Dependent Model for Small-Strain Shear Modulus of Unsaturated Soils24
Response of Framed Buildings on Raft Foundations to Tunneling23
Performance of Existing Piled Raft and Pile Group due to Adjacent Multipropped Excavation: 3D Centrifuge and Numerical Modeling23
Use of Grouting to Control Horizontal Tunnel Deformation Induced by Adjacent Excavation23
Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Methane Hydrate–Bearing Sediments under High Effective Confining Pressure23
Depth-Dependent Seabed Properties: Geoacoustic Assessment23
Impact of Three-Dimensional Sphericity and Roundness on Coordination Number23
Drying-Induced Consolidation in Soil23
Performance of Embankments on Liquefiable Soils Improved with Dense Granular Columns: Observations from Case Histories and Centrifuge Experiments23
Experimental Study of the Behavior of Cemented Paste Backfill under High Isotropic Compression22
Machine Learning–Based Digital Integration of Geotechnical and Ultrahigh–Frequency Geophysical Data for Offshore Site Characterizations22
Soil Sorptive Potential–Based Paradigm for Soil Freezing Curves22
Simplified Equations for Shear-Modulus Degradation and Damping of Gravels22
Effect of Tension Crack Formation on Active Earth Pressure Encountered in Unsaturated Retaining Wall Backfills22
Effective Stress Analysis of Liquefiable Sites to Estimate the Severity of Sediment Ejecta22
Performance Evaluation of Infrastructure on Problematic Expansive Soils: Characterization Challenges, Innovative Stabilization Designs, and Monitoring Methods22
Sand Foreshore Slope Stability and Erosion Mitigation Based on Microbiota and Enzyme Mix–Induced Carbonate Precipitation22
Seismic Interaction of Adjacent Structures on Liquefiable Soils: Insight from Centrifuge and Numerical Modeling22
Epistemic Uncertainty in Site Response as Derived from One-Dimensional Ground Response Analyses21
A Simple Breakage Model for Calcareous Sand and Its FE Implementation21
Deep Learning for Geotechnical Reliability Analysis with Multiple Uncertainties21
Methodology for Resloping of Rock Slope Using 3D Models from UAV-CRP Technology21
Levee Fragility Behavior under Projected Future Flooding in a Warming Climate21
Centrifuge Modeling of Cyclic Nonsymmetrical Thermally Loaded Energy Pile Groups in Clay21
Analytical Solutions for Thermomechanical Soil Structure Interaction in End-Bearing Energy Piles21
Shear Strength Anisotropy of Natural Granite Residual Soil20
Stress-Displacement Response of Sand–Geosynthetic Interfaces under Different Volume Change Boundary Conditions20
An Energetic Interpretation of Liquefaction Laboratory Tests on Partially Saturated Soils19
New Model for Predicting Permanent Strain of Granular Materials in Embankment Subjected to Low Cyclic Loadings19
A Simple Method for Predicting Rainfall-Induced Shallow Landslides19
Variation of Resilient Modulus of Subgrade Soils over a Wide Range of Suction States19
Effects of Rock Specimen Size on Mechanical Properties in Laboratory Testing19
Vertical Dynamic Response of a Pile Embedded in Layered Transversely Isotropic Unsaturated Soils19
Translational Inertial Effects and Scaling Considerations for Coarse Granular Flows Impacting Landslide-Resisting Barriers19
Observed Performance of a Deep Excavation in the Historical Center of Rome19
Data Compilation from Large Drained Compression Triaxial Tests on Coarse Crushable Rockfill Materials19
Probabilistic Seismic Displacement Hazard Assessment of Earth Slopes Incorporating Spatially Random Soil Parameters18
Geotechnical Characterization of Fine-Grained Spoil Material from Surface Coal Mines18
Negative Effect of Installation on Performance of a Compaction-Grouted Soil Nail in Poorly Graded Stockton Beach Sand18
Centrifuge Modeling of Monotonic and Cyclic Lateral Behavior of Monopiles in Sand18
Spring-Based Trapdoor Tests Investigating Soil Arching Stability in Embankment Fill under Localized Surface Loading18
Ground Response to Horizontal Spoil Discharge Jet Grouting with Impacts on the Existing Tunnels17
Estimating Unbiased Statistics for Fundamental Site Frequency Using Spatially Distributed HVSR Measurements and Voronoi Tessellation17
Variability in the Unconfined Compressive Strength of EICP-Treated “Standard” Sand17
Gravel Liquefaction Assessment Using the Dynamic Cone Penetration Test Based on Field Performance from the 1976 Friuli Earthquake17
Numerical Simulation of Desiccation Cracking in Clayey Soil Using a Multifield Coupling Discrete-Element Model17
Thermal Conductivity of Sand–Silt Mixtures17
Liquefaction Hazard in the Groningen Region of the Netherlands due to Induced Seismicity17
Three-Dimensional Evaluation of Sand Particle Fracture Using Discrete-Element Method and Synchrotron Microcomputed Tomography Images17
Effect of Pore–Fluid Chemistry on the Undrained Shear Strength of Xanthan Gum Biopolymer-Treated Clays17
Behavior of Nonidentical Differently Loaded Interfering Rough Footings17
Distribution and Properties of Microbially Induced Carbonate Precipitation in Underwater Sand Bed16
Lime–Ground Glass–Sodium Hydroxide as an Enhanced Sustainable Binder Stabilizing Silica Sand16
A New Vs-Based Liquefaction-Triggering Procedure for Gravelly Soils16
Cavitation of Water in Soil16
Thermal Consolidation Theory16
Experimental Study of the Effect of Excavation on Existing Loaded Piles16
Bearing Capacity of Strip Footings Seated on Unreinforced and Geosynthetic-Reinforced Granular Layers over Spatially Variable Soft Clay Deposits16
Conceptual Hydraulic Conductivity Model for Unsaturated Soils at Low Degree of Saturation and Its Application to the Study of Capillary Barrier Systems16
Distinct-Element Method Simulations of Rock-Socketed Piles: Estimation of Side Shear Resistance Considering Socket Roughness16
Probabilistic Bearing Capacity Prediction of Square Footings on 3D Spatially Varying Cohesive Soils16
Relationship between Shear-Wave Velocity and Undrained Shear Strength of Peat15
Effects of Monopile Installation on Subsequent Lateral Response in Sand. I: Pile Installation15
A Unified Formula for Small-Strain Shear Modulus of Sandy Soils Based on Extreme Void Ratios15
Consolidation by Vertical Drains beneath a Circular Embankment under Surcharge and Vacuum Preloading15
Practical Analytical Approach for Estimating Long-Term and Set-Up Shaft Resistance of Prebored Piles15
Large-Scale Shake Table Tests on a Shallow Foundation in Liquefiable Soils15
Undrained Seismic Compression of Unsaturated Sand15
Characterization and Geotechnical Investigations of a Riverbank Failure in Florence, Italy, UNESCO World Heritage Site15
Geotechnical Stability of Waste Fills: Lessons Learned and Continuing Challenges15
Finite-Element Modeling of Landfills to Estimate Heat Generation, Transport, and Accumulation15
Liquefaction Potential and Effective Stress of Fiber-Reinforced Sand during Undrained Cyclic Loading15
Multipoint Traveling Wave Decomposition Method and Its Application in Extended Pile Shaft Integrity Test14
Uplift Behavior of Pipes and Strip Plate Anchors in Sand14
Effect of Trapped Cavity Mechanism on Interpretation of T-Bar Penetrometer Data in Uniform Clay14
Implications of Thermal Cyclic Loading on Pile Group Behavior14
Discrete-Element Method Simulations of the Seismic Response of Flexible Retaining Walls14
Role of Shear Deformability on the Response of Tunnels and Pipelines to Single and Twin Tunneling14
Key Parameter for Swelling Control of Compacted Expansive Fine-Grained Soil–Lime Blends14
Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Geotechnical Ground Improvement Methods14
Pore Pressure and Kσ Evaluation at High Overburden Pressure under Field Drainage Conditions. I: Centrifuge Experiments14
A New Dynamic Cone Penetration Test–Based Procedure for Liquefaction Triggering Assessment of Gravelly Soils14
Centrifuge Modeling of Stability of Embankment on Soft Soil Improved by Rigid Columns14
MPM Modeling of Cone Penetrometer Testing for Multiple Thin-Layer Effects in Complex Soil Stratigraphy14
Hydraulic Performance of Geosynthetic Clay Liners Comprising Anionic Polymer–Enhanced Bentonites14
Micromechanical Properties of Biocemented Shale Soils Analyzed Using Nanoindentation Test14
Liquefaction and Cyclic Softening at Balboa Boulevard during the 1994 Northridge Earthquake14
Performance Evaluation of Recycled-Plastic-Pin-Supported Embankment over Soft Soil14
3D DEM-FDM Coupled Analysis of the Behavior of an Isolated Geogrid-Encased Stone Column under Axial Loading14
Comparison of Laboratory and Field Measurements of Backfill Hydraulic Conductivity for a Large-Scale Soil-Bentonite Cutoff Wall14
Time-Dependent Deformation Characteristics of Unsaturated Sand–Bentonite Mixture under Drying–Wetting Cycles14
Responses of Laterally Loaded Single Piles within Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls13
Undrained Responses of Anisotropic Granular Material under Rotational Shear by DEM13
Modeling of Initial Stresses and Seepage for Large Deformation Finite-Element Simulation of Sensitive Clay Landslides13
Effects of Temperature and Thermal Cycles on the Elastic Shear Modulus of Saturated Clay13
System Response of an Interlayered Deposit with Spatially Preferential Liquefaction Manifestations13
Effects of Groundwater Level on Seismic Response of Soil–Foundation Systems13
Flowability of Saturated Sands under Cyclic Loading and the Viscous Fluid Flow Failure Criterion for Liquefaction Triggering13
Settlement of Footings on Compacted and Natural Collapsible Soils upon Loading and Soaking13
Numerical Simulation of a Ground Anchor Pullout Test Monitored with Fiber Optic Sensors13
Effects of Soil Type on Axial and Radial Thermal Responses of Field-Scale Energy Piles13
Measuring Critical Gradients for Soil Loosening and Initiation of Backward Erosion-Piping Mechanism13
Variation of Small-Strain Shear Modulus of Unsaturated Silt under Successive Cycles of Drying and Wetting13
Global versus Local Simulation of Geotechnical Parameters for Tunneling Projects13
Effect of Gradation on the Strength and Stress-Dilation Behavior of Coarse-Grained Soils in Drained and Undrained Triaxial Compression13
Bidirectional Shear Wave Velocity Measurements to Track Fabric Anisotropy Evolution of a Crushed Silica Sand during Shearing13
Numerical Investigations into Development of Seabed Trenching in Semitaut Moorings13
Accounting for Soil Spatial Variability in Plate Anchor Design13
Effect of Temperature on the Strength of Lime–Cement Stabilized Norwegian Clays13
General Model for the Uniaxial Tensile Strength Characteristic Curve of Unsaturated Soils12
Optimization of Impact Pile Driving Using Optical Fiber Bragg-Grating Measurements12
Dynamic In Situ Nonlinear Inelastic Response of a Deep Medium Dense Sand Deposit12
Soil Deformations Induced by Particle Removal under Complex Stress States12
Estimating the Severity of Liquefaction Ejecta Using the Cone Penetration Test12
Validation of Monotonic and Cyclic p-y Framework by Lateral Pile Load Tests in Stiff, Overconsolidated Clay at the Haga Site12
Centrifuge Model Tests of Liquefaction-Induced Downdrag on Piles in Uniform Liquefiable Deposits12
Effect of Base Geometry on the Resistance of Model Piles in Sand12
Numerical Investigation of Bearing Capacity of Spudcan Foundations in Clay Overlying Sand under Combined Loading12
Comparison of State-of-the-Art Approaches Used to Account for Spatial Variability in 1D Ground Response Analyses12
Seismic Response Characteristics of Liquefiable Sites with and without Sediment Ejecta Manifestation12
Improved Method for the Seismic Design of Anchored Steel Sheet Pile Walls12
Hybrid Framework for Forecasting Circular Excavation Collapse: Combining Physics-Based and Data-Driven Modeling12
Field Trials of Microbially Induced Desaturation in Low-Plasticity Silt12
Exploration of the Survival Probability and Shape Evolution of Crushable Particles during One-Dimensional Compression Using Dyed Gypsum Particles12
Prediction of Pipe-Jacking Forces Using a Bayesian Updating Approach12
Assessing Persistence of Entrapped Gas for Induced Partial Saturation11
Material Point Method for Cone Penetration in Clays11
Forewarning of Static Liquefaction Landslides11
Anisotropic Stiffness and Shear Strength Characteristics of a Stiff Glacial Till11
Undrained Dynamic Response of Partially Saturated Sands Tested in a DSS-C Device11
Effects of Surface Roughness on Lateral Load–Carrying Capacities of Piles Embedded in Sand11
Pore Pressure and Kσ Evaluation at High Overburden Pressure under Field Drainage Conditions. II: Additional Interpretation11
Cyclic Response and Reconsolidation Volumetric Strain of Sand under Repeated Cyclic Shear Loading Events11
Impact of Ground Densification on the Response of Urban Liquefiable Sites and Structures11
Characterizing the Deformation Evolution with Stress and Time of Biocemented Sands11
Grain-Scale Tensile and Shear Strengths of Glass Beads Cemented by MICP11
Energy-Based Assessment of Liquefaction Resistance of Rooted Soil11
Analytical Model for Laterally Loaded Soil-Extended Pile Shaft Applied to Verifying the Applicability of Lateral PS Method11
Centrifuge Study on the Influence of Tunnel Excavation on Piles in Sand11
Assessment of the Dynamic Properties of Holocene Peat10
Development of Constitutive Models for Linear and Nonlinear Shear Modulus and Material Damping Ratio of Uncemented Soils10
Effect of Colloidal Silica Aqueous Gel on the Monotonic and Cyclic Response of Sands10
Curved Strain Wedge Analysis of Laterally Loaded Flexible Piles in Various Soil Types10
Use of Vertical and Inclined Walls to Mitigate the Interaction of Reverse Faulting and Shallow Foundations: Centrifuge Tests and Numerical Simulation10
Bearing Capacity of Ring Foundations over Rock Media10
Winkler Solution for Seismic Earth Pressures Exerted on Flexible Walls by Vertically Inhomogeneous Soil10
Effects of Monopile Installation on Subsequent Lateral Response in Sand. II: Lateral Loading10
Assessment of Physical Properties of Water-Repellent Soils10
Load Transfer Directionality of Snakeskin-Inspired Piles during Installation and Pullout in Sands10
Generic Predictive Model of Earthquake-Induced Slope Displacements Derived from Finite-Element Analysis10
Analytical Solutions for Heat Transfer in Saturated Soil with Effective Porosity10
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Performance of Piles and Suction Caissons Subjected to Inclined Cyclic Loading in Cohesive Soils10
Effect of Phase Difference on the Liquefaction Behavior of Sand in Multidirectional Simple Shear Tests10
Load Transfer in Geosynthetic-Reinforced Piled Embankments with a Triangular Arrangement of Piles10
Group Effect of Pipe Jacking in Silty Sand10
Equivalent Strength for Tunnels in Cement-Admixed Soil Columns with Spatial Variability and Positioning Error10
Field Soil Suction Profiles for Expansive Soil10
Three-Dimensional Modeling of Strain-Softening Soil Response for Seismic-Loading Applications10
Correlation between Atterberg Limits and Soil Adsorptive Water10
Validating the Generality of a Closed-Form Equation for Soil Water Isotherm10
Selecting the Optimal Factor of Safety or Probability of Liquefaction Triggering for Engineering Projects Based on Misprediction Costs10
Cyclic Degradation and Pore-Water Pressure Response of High-Plasticity Compacted Clay10
An Investigation of the Influence of Reconsolidation Properties on the Reliquefaction Resistance of Sand by Element Tests10
Small-Strain Stiffness of Natural Pumiceous Sand10
Efficacy of Aging Correction for Liquefaction Assessment of Case Histories Recorded during the 2010 Darfield and 2011 Christchurch Earthquakes in New Zealand10
Influence of Centrifuge Test Soil-Container Friction on Seismic Sheet-Pile Wall Response in Liquefiable Deposit: Insights from Numerical Simulations9
Empirical Probability Distribution Models for Soil-Layer Thicknesses of Liquefiable Ground9
Influence of Low-Permeability Layers on the Installation and the Response to Vertical Cyclic Loading of Suction Caissons9
A p–y Model for Large Diameter Monopiles in Sands Subjected to Lateral Loading under Static and Long-Term Cyclic Conditions9
Investigation of Cyclic Loading of Aged Piles in Sand9
Effects of Enzyme and Microbially Induced Carbonate Precipitation Treatments on the Response of Axially Loaded Pervious Concrete Piles9
Effects of Imperfect Simple Shear Test Boundary Conditions on Monotonic and Cyclic Measurements in Sand9
Soil Mix Cutoff Wall Materials with Microcapsule-Based Self-Healing Grout9
Seismic Compression of Unsaturated Silty Sands: A Strain-Based Approach9
Probabilistic Predictive Model for Liquefaction Triggering in Layered Sites Improved with Dense Granular Columns9
Effect of Biogenic Gas Formation through Microbial Induced Desaturation and Precipitation on the Static Response of Sands with Varied Relative Density9
Soil Response during Globally Drained and Undrained Freeze–Thaw Cycles under Deviatoric Loading9
Effect of Keying-Induced Soil Remolding on the Ultimate Pull-Out Capacity and Embedment Loss of Strip Anchors in Clay9
Dynamic Ground Response during Vibratory Sheet Pile Driving9
MgO-GGBS Binder–Stabilized/Solidified PAE-Contaminated Soil: Strength and Leachability in Early Stage9
Stochastic Slope Stability Analysis of an Embankment Supported by Isolated Soil–Cement Columns Considering Spatial Variability9
Strength, Deformation, and Particle Breakage Behavior of Calcareous Sand: Role of Anisotropic Consolidation9
Seismic Site Classification from Surface Wave Data to Vs,30 without Inversion9
Stability and Stress-Deformation Analyses of Reinforced Slope Failure at Yeager Airport9
Role of Pile Spacing on Dynamic Behavior of Pile Groups in Layered Soils9
Thermal Conductivity of Municipal Solid Waste from In Situ Heat Extraction Tests9
Expanded Database Assessment of Design Methods for Spread Foundations under Axial Compression and Uplift Loading9
Finite-Element Analysis of the Lateral Load Response of Monopiles in Layered Sand9
Repeated ETRTs in a Complex Stratified Geological Setting: High-Resolution Thermal Conductivity Identification by Multiple Linear Regression9
True Liquefaction Triggering Curve9
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