Forest Ecology and Management

(The median citation count of Forest Ecology and Management is 4. The table below lists those papers that are above that threshold based on CrossRef citation counts [max. 500 papers]. The publications cover those that have been published in the past four years, i.e., from 2019-11-01 to 2023-11-01.)
Tamm Review: Influence of forest management activities on soil organic carbon stocks: A knowledge synthesis287
Devastating outbreak of bark beetles in the Czech Republic: Drivers, impacts, and management implications104
Responses to drought stress in Prunus sargentii and Larix kaempferi seedlings using morphological and physiological parameters95
How does forest management affect fungal diversity and community composition? Current knowledge and future perspectives for the conservation of forest fungi89
A Bayesian network model for prediction and analysis of possible forest fire causes89
Nitrogen deposition is the most important environmental driver of growth of pure, even-aged and managed European forests87
Individual tree detection and species classification of Amazonian palms using UAV images and deep learning87
The greater resilience of mixed forests to drought mainly depends on their composition: Analysis along a climate gradient across Europe84
Climate relationships with increasing wildfire in the southwestern US from 1984 to 201577
Ecological restoration in Brazilian biomes: Identifying advances and gaps72
Terrain gradient variations in ecosystem services of different vegetation types in mountainous regions: Vegetation resource conservation and sustainable development70
The impact of fire on soil-dwelling biota: A review70
Decomposition and transformations along the continuum from litter to soil organic matter in forest soils68
Forest fire susceptibility mapping via multi-criteria decision analysis techniques for Mugla, Turkey: A comparative analysis of VIKOR and TOPSIS67
Application of conventional UAV-based high-throughput object detection to the early diagnosis of pine wilt disease by deep learning65
What is the potential for replacing monocultures with mixed-species stands to enhance ecosystem services in boreal forests in Fennoscandia?63
Early detection of pine wilt disease using deep learning algorithms and UAV-based multispectral imagery59
Species mixing reduces drought susceptibility of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and oak (Quercus robur L., Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) – Site water supply and fertility modify the mixing effect59
Linking vegetation and soil functions during secondary forest succession in the Atlantic forest58
Biochar addition to forest plantation soil enhances phosphorus availability and soil bacterial community diversity57
Invasive grasses: A new perfect storm for forested ecosystems?56
Mechanisms of forest resilience56
Tamm Review: Deep fine roots in forest ecosystems: Why dig deeper?56
Effects of different rotation periods of Eucalyptus plantations on soil physiochemical properties, enzyme activities, microbial biomass and microbial community structure and diversity56
Economic valuation of ecosystem services from secondary tropical forests: trade-offs and implications for policy making55
Tamm review: Leaf Area Index (LAI) is both a determinant and a consequence of important processes in vegetation canopies54
Impacts of climate change scenarios on European ash tree (Fraxinus excelsior L.) in Turkey53
Afforestation promotes the enhancement of forest LAI and NPP in China50
A review of the mechanisms and controlling factors of methane dynamics in forest ecosystems48
Tamm review: Does salvage logging mitigate subsequent forest disturbances?46
Stand density effects on carbon and water fluxes in a semi-arid forest, from leaf to stand-scale45
Soil organic matter, nitrogen and pH driven change in bacterial community following forest conversion44
Mixed-effects generalized height–diameter model for young silver birch stands on post-agricultural lands44
Fire severity impacts on tree mortality and post-fire recruitment in tall eucalypt forests of southwest Australia43
Variation in whole-rotation yield among Eucalyptus genotypes in response to water and heat stresses: The TECHS project43
Remote sensing of temperate and boreal forest phenology: A review of progress, challenges and opportunities in the intercomparison of in-situ and satellite phenological metrics43
The impact of tree canopy structure on understory variation in a boreal forest43
Operational resilience in western US frequent-fire forests42
Long term effects of management practice intensification on soil microbial community structure and co-occurrence network in a non-timber plantation41
First-entry wildfires can create opening and tree clump patterns characteristic of resilient forests40
Tamm review: The effects of prescribed fire on wildfire regimes and impacts: A framework for comparison39
Key perspectives on early successional forests subject to stand-replacing disturbances39
Open forest ecosystems: An excluded state38
What drives ponderosa pine regeneration following wildfire in the western United States?38
Density and growth of forest stands revisited. Effect of the temporal scale of observation, site quality, and thinning37
Bees in the trees: Diverse spring fauna in temperate forest edge canopies37
Tree growth rate and soil nutrient status determine the shift in nutrient-use strategy of Chinese fir plantations along a chronosequence37
A comparison of five methods to assess embolism resistance in trees37
Ecological restoration projects did not increase the value of all ecosystem services in Northeast China37
Mixed-species plantations can alleviate water stress on the Loess Plateau37
Variable thinning and prescribed fire influence tree mortality and growth during and after a severe drought37
Variation in canopy structure, leaf area, light interception and light use efficiency among Eucalyptus clones36
Mixing with broad-leaved trees shapes the rhizosphere soil fungal communities of coniferous tree species in subtropical forests36
Satellite evidence for China's leading role in restoring vegetation productivity over global karst ecosystems36
Effects of competition, age and climate on tree slenderness of Chinese fir plantations in southern China35
Coupling terrestrial laser scanning with 3D fuel biomass sampling for advancing wildland fuels characterization35
Fire from policy, human interventions, or biophysical factors? Temporal–spatial patterns of forest fire in southwestern China35
Change in forest condition: Characterizing non-stand replacing disturbances using time series satellite imagery35
Tamm Review: Postfire landscape management in frequent-fire conifer forests of the southwestern United States34
California spotted owl habitat selection in a fire-managed landscape suggests conservation benefit of restoring historical fire regimes34
Functional traits indicate a continuum of tree drought strategies across a soil water availability gradient in a tropical dry forest34
Indicator based integrated vulnerability assessment of community forests in Indian west Himalaya34
Tree species effects on topsoil carbon stock and concentration are mediated by tree species type, mycorrhizal association, and N-fixing ability at the global scale33
Soil available phosphorus and moisture drive nutrient resorption patterns in plantations on the Loess Plateau33
Inter-specific tolerance to recurrent droughts of pine species revealed in saplings rather than adult trees33
Forests of the future: Climate change impacts and implications for carbon storage in the Pacific Northwest, USA33
Mixed vs. monospecific mountain forests in response to climate change: structural and growth perspectives of Norway spruce and European beech33
Vehicle-induced compaction of forest soil affects plant morphological and physiological attributes: A meta-analysis33
Predicting potential mangrove distributions at the global northern distribution margin using an ecological niche model: Determining conservation and reforestation involvement33
Effects and behaviour of experimental fires in grasslands, savannas, and forests of the Brazilian Cerrado33
A keystone species, European aspen (Populus tremula L.), in boreal forests: Ecological role, knowledge needs and mapping using remote sensing33
Effects of Eucalyptus plantations on streamflow in Brazil: Moving beyond the water use debate33
High-severity wildfire reduces richness and alters composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi in low-severity adapted ponderosa pine forests32
Context dependent fungal and bacterial soil community shifts in response to recent wildfires in the Southern Appalachian Mountains32
Climate and large-sized trees, but not diversity, drive above-ground biomass in subtropical forests32
Forest thinning increases soil carbon stocks in China32
Cumulative effects of multiple biodiversity attributes and abiotic factors on ecosystem multifunctionality in the Jinsha River valley of southwestern China32
Forest quality-based assessment of the Returning Farmland to Forest Program at the community level in SW China32
Impacts and uncertainties of climate change projections on Eucalyptus plantations productivity across Brazil31
Streams and riparian forests depend on each other: A review with a special focus on microbes31
The influence of climate and management on survival probability for Germany’s most important tree species31
Challenges and opportunities for large-scale reforestation in the Eastern Amazon using native species31
Predicting and mapping site index in operational forest inventories using bitemporal airborne laser scanner data31
Effects of forest harvesting and biomass removal on soil carbon and nitrogen: Two complementary meta-analyses30
Competition modulates the response of growth to climate in pure and mixed Abies pinsapo subsp. Maroccana forests in northern Morocco30
A history of recurrent, low-severity fire without fire exclusion in southeastern pine savannas, USA30
Biological control of emerging forest diseases: How can we move from dreams to reality?30
Deer browsing and shrub competition set sapling recruitment height and interact with light to shape recruitment niches for temperate forest tree species30
Litter manipulation effects on microbial communities and enzymatic activities vary with soil depth in a subtropical Chinese fir plantation30
Modeling fuel loads dynamics and fire spread probability in the Brazilian Cerrado30
Influence of climatic variations on production, biomass and density of wood in eucalyptus clones of different species30
Thinning drives C:N:P stoichiometry and nutrient resorption in Larix principis-rupprechtii plantations in North China30
The course of tree growth. Theory and reality30
Continuous-cover forestry maintains soil fungal communities in Norway spruce dominated boreal forests29
A generalized nonlinear mixed-effects height–diameter model for Norway spruce in mixed-uneven aged stands29
Patterns and drivers of deadwood volume and composition in different forest types of the Austrian natural forest reserves29
Assessing the effects of thinning on stem growth allocation of individual Scots pine trees29
Effects of long-term nitrogen addition and decreased precipitation on the fine root morphology and anatomy of the main tree species in a temperate forest29
Tree, stand, and landscape factors contributing to hurricane damage in a coastal plain forest: Post-hurricane assessment in a longleaf pine landscape29
Importance of tree species size dominance and heterogeneity on the productivity of spruce-fir-beech mountain forest stands in Europe28
Mass fire behavior created by extensive tree mortality and high tree density not predicted by operational fire behavior models in the southern Sierra Nevada28
Assessing the growth gaps of Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil – Magnitudes, causes and possible mitigation strategies28
Structural variation of forest edges across Europe28
Irrigation management in poplar (Populus spp.) plantations: A review28
A random forest model for basal area increment predictions from national forest inventory data28
The importance of Indigenous cultural burning in forested regions of the Pacific West, USA28
Bark stripping, the crucial factor affecting stem rot development and timber production of Norway spruce forests in Central Europe28
Edaphic factors but not plant characteristics mainly alter soil microbial properties along a restoration chronosequence of Pinus tabulaeformis stands on Mt. Ziwuling, China28
Comparison of soil microbial community between planted woodland and natural grass vegetation on the Loess Plateau28
Influence of selected habitat and stand factors on bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) outbreak in the Białowieża Forest27
Sap flow and responses to meteorological about the Larix principis-rupprechtii plantation in Gansu Xinlong mountain, northwestern China27
Reducing rotation age to address increasing disturbances in Central Europe: Potential and limitations27
General estimation models for above- and below-ground biomass of teak (Tectona grandis) plantations in Thailand27
Bark beetle infestation spots as biodiversity hotspots: Canopy gaps resulting from insect outbreaks enhance the species richness, diversity and abundance of birds breeding in coniferous forests27
How drought stress becomes visible upon detecting tree shape using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS)27
How C:N:P stoichiometry in soils and plants responds to succession in Robinia pseudoacacia forests on the Loess Plateau, China27
Invasive red oak (Quercus rubra L.) modifies soil physicochemical properties and forest understory vegetation27
Relations of land cover, topography, and climate to fire occurrence in natural regions of Iran: Applying new data mining techniques for modeling and mapping fire danger27
Influence of stand density on growth and water use efficiency in Eucalyptus clones27
Biochar application increased ecosystem carbon sequestration capacity in a Moso bamboo forest27
Post-fire wood mulch for reducing erosion potential increases tree seedlings with few impacts on understory plants and soil nitrogen27
Resprouting drives successional pathways and the resilience of Caatinga dry forest in human-modified landscapes27
A comparative assessment of the vertical distribution of forest components using full-waveform airborne, discrete airborne and discrete terrestrial laser scanning data27
Transference of Robinia pseudoacacia water-use patterns from deep to shallow soil layers during the transition period between the dry and rainy seasons in a water-limited region26
Ecosystem-level carbon stocks and sequestration rates in mangroves in the Cananéia-Iguape lagoon estuarine system, southeastern Brazil26
Stand structure determines aboveground biomass across temperate forest types and species mixture along a local-scale elevational gradient26
Initial regeneration success of tree species after different forestry treatments in a sessile oak-hornbeam forest26
How do monocultures of fourteen forest tree species affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi abundance and species richness and composition in soil?26
Application of high-throughput plant phenotyping for assessing biophysical traits and drought response in two oak species under controlled environment26
Effects of intensive management practices on rhizosphere soil properties, root growth, and nutrient uptake in Moso bamboo plantations in subtropical China26
Impacts of the Three-North shelter forest program on the main soil nutrients in Northern Shaanxi China: A meta-analysis26
Nitrous oxide emissions of undrained, forestry-drained, and rewetted boreal peatlands26
The effects of warming and nitrogen addition on fine root exudation rates in a young Chinese-fir stand26
Competition and facilitation co-regulate the spatial patterns of boreal tree species in Kanas of Xinjiang, northwest China26
Dual inoculations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria boost drought resistance and essential oil yield of common myrtle26
Changes in the stocks of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and phosphorus following afforestation of post-arable soils: A chronosequence study26
Whole-plant water hydraulic integrity to predict drought-induced Eucalyptus urophylla mortality under drought stress26
Soil and forest regeneration after different extraction methods in coppice forests26
Temporal changes in Mediterranean forest ecosystem services are driven by stand development, rather than by climate-related disturbances25
The effect of species diversity on tree growth varies during forest succession in the boreal forest of central Canada25
Few large trees, rather than plant diversity and composition, drive the above-ground biomass stock and dynamics of temperate forests in northeast China25
The effect of buffer strip width and selective logging on riparian forest microclimate25
Effects of nitrogen addition on rhizospheric soil microbial communities of poplar plantations at different ages25
The impact of land-use legacies and recent management on natural disturbance susceptibility in mountain forests25
Understory vegetation dynamics of Chinese fir plantations and natural secondary forests in subtropical China25
Growing stock monitoring by European National Forest Inventories: Historical origins, current methods and harmonisation25
Glyphosate remains in forest plant tissues for a decade or more25
Phosphite spray for the control of oak decline induced by Phytophthora in Europe25
Topographic position amplifies consequences of short-interval stand-replacing fires on postfire tree establishment in subalpine conifer forests25
Competition and water stress indices as predictors of Pinus halepensis Mill. radial growth under drought25
Differential effects of drought on nonstructural carbohydrate storage in seedlings and mature trees of four species in a subtropical forest25
Forest wildfire and 12 years of post-disturbance succession of saprotrophic macrofungi (Basidiomycota, Ascomycota)24
Rapid and surprising dieback of Utah juniper in the southwestern USA due to acute drought stress24
Management strategies, silvopastoral practices and socioecological drivers in traditional livestock systems in tropical dry forests: An integrated analysis24
Change in root-associated fungal communities affects soil enzymatic activities during Pinus massoniana forest development in subtropical China24
Tamm Review: Ecological principles to guide post-fire forest landscape management in the Inland Pacific and Northern Rocky Mountain regions24
Increase of soil nitrogen availability and recycling with stand age of Chinese-fir plantations24
Sensitivity to water stress drives differential decline and mortality dynamics of three co-occurring conifers with different drought tolerance24
Climate response and drought resilience of Nothofagus obliqua secondary forests across a latitudinal gradient in south-central Chile24
Plantation forests cannot support the richness of forest specialist plants in the forest-steppe zone24
Temporal effects of thinning on soil organic carbon pools, basal respiration and enzyme activities in a Mediterranean Holm oak forest24
Could canopy, bark, and leaf litter traits of encroaching non-oak species influence future flammability of upland oak forests?24
Basal area increment models accounting for climate and mixture for Austrian tree species24
Soil quality and mesofauna diversity relationship are modulated by woody species and seasonality in semiarid oak forest24
Sap flow changes and climatic responses over multiple-year treatment of rainfall exclusion in a sub-humid black locust plantation24
Effects of winter chilling and photoperiod on leaf-out and flowering in a subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in China24
Impacts of mountain pine beetle outbreaks on lodgepole pine forests in the Intermountain West, U.S., 2004–201923
Estimate canopy transpiration in larch plantations via the interactions among reference evapotranspiration, leaf area index, and soil moisture23
Total soil organic carbon increases but becomes more labile after afforestation in China’s Loess Plateau23
Persistent changes in the horizontal and vertical canopy structure of fire-tolerant forests after severe fire as quantified using multi-temporal airborne lidar data23
Stocking effects on seasonal tree transpiration and ecosystem water balance in a fast-growing Eucalyptus plantation in Brazil23
Variation in resin flow among Maritime pine populations: Relationship with growth potential and climatic responses23
This is my spot: What are the characteristics of the trees excavated by the Black Woodpecker? A case study in two managed French forests23
High-resolution mapping of forest vulnerability to wind for disturbance-aware forestry23
Characterizing recent bark beetle-caused tree mortality in the western United States from aerial surveys23
Previous wildfires and management treatments moderate subsequent fire severity23
Natural disturbances risks in European Boreal and Temperate forests and their links to climate change – A review of modelling approaches23
Response of root nutrient resorption strategies to rhizosphere soil microbial nutrient utilization along Robinia pseudoacacia plantation chronosequence23
Sustainability of Canada’s forestry sector may be compromised by impending climate change23
Effects of intensive biomass harvesting on forest soils in the Nordic countries and the UK: A meta-analysis23
Stand attributes or soil micro-environment exert greater influence than management type on understory plant diversity in even-aged oak high forests23
Savanna vegetation structure in the Brazilian Cerrado allows for the accurate estimation of aboveground biomass using terrestrial laser scanning23
The effects of contrasting environments on the basic density and mean annual increment of wood from eucalyptus clones22
Tree diversity, distribution and regeneration in major forest types along an extensive elevational gradient in Indian Himalaya: Implications for sustainable forest management22
The influence of birch trees (Betula spp.) on soil environment – A review22
Regeneration patterns reveal contraction of ponderosa forests and little upward migration of pinyon-juniper woodlands22
Forest adaptation strategies aimed at climate change: Assessing the performance of future climate-adapted tree species in a northern Minnesota pine ecosystem22
Effects of stand density on soil microbial community composition and enzyme activities in subtropical Cunninghamia lanceolate (Lamb.) Hook plantations22
Transition from N to P limited soil nutrients over time since restoration in degraded subtropical broadleaved mixed forests22
Effects of different vegetation restoration on soil nutrients, enzyme activities, and microbial communities in degraded karst landscapes in southwest China22
Adaptability and stability of eucalypt clones at different ages across environmental gradients in Brazil22
European beech leads to more bioactive humus forms but stronger mineral soil acidification as Norway spruce and Scots pine – Results of a repeated site assessment after 63 and 82 years of forest conve22
The effects of nitrogen addition on soil organic carbon decomposition and microbial C-degradation functional genes abundance in a Pinus tabulaeformis forest22
Risk assessment of forest disturbance by typhoons with heavy precipitation in northern Japan22
Greater risk of hydraulic failure due to increased drought threatens pine plantations in Horqin Sandy Land of northern China22
The negative effect of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) monoculture plantations on soil physicochemical properties, microbial biomass, fungal communities, and enzymatic activities22
Are photosynthetic leaf traits related to the first-year growth of tropical tree seedlings? A light-induced plasticity test in a secondary forest enrichment planting22
Climate change effects on wildfire hazards in the wildland-urban-interface – Blue pine forests of Bhutan22
Chilling accumulation and photoperiod regulate rest break and bud burst in five subtropical tree species21
Soil organic carbon fractions, C-cycling associated hydrolytic enzymes, and microbial carbon metabolism vary with stand age in Cunninghamia lanceolate (Lamb.) Hook plantations21
Variation in height-diameter allometry of ponderosa pine along competition, climate, and species diversity gradients in the western United States21
Stand age, disturbance history and the temporal stability of forest production21
Aboveground biomass dynamics and growth efficiency of Sequoia sempervirens forests21
Stand structure, biomass and dynamics of naturally regenerated and restored mangroves in Malaysia21
Fire risk and severity decline with stand development in Tasmanian giant Eucalyptus forest21
Effects of experimental prescribed fire and tree thinning on oak savanna understory plant communities and ecosystem structure21
Forest clear-cuts as habitat for farmland birds and butterflies21
Comparative analysis of spatial variation in forest fire drivers between boreal and subtropical ecosystems in China21
Ecosystem services supply and interactions along secondary tropical dry forests succession21
Airborne lidar provides reliable estimates of canopy base height and canopy bulk density in southwestern ponderosa pine forests21
Selecting for water use efficiency, wood chemical traits and biomass with genomic selection in a Eucalyptus breeding program21
Variability in climate-growth reaction of Robinia pseudoacacia in Eastern Europe indicates potential for acclimatisation to future climate21
How forest structure varies with elevation in old growth and secondary forest in Costa Rica21
Using fine scale resolution vegetation data from LiDAR and ground-based sampling to predict Pacific marten resting habitat at multiple spatial scales20
Factors controlling soil organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks following afforestation with Robinia pseudoacacia on cropland across China20
Quantifying regional trends in large live tree and snag availability in support of forest management20
Recovery of aboveground biomass, species richness and composition in tropical secondary forests in SW Costa Rica20
Patterns and drivers of deadwood quantity and variation in mid-latitude deciduous forests20
Gaps and hotspots in the state of knowledge of pinyon-juniper communities20
Long term anthropogenic enrichment of soil organic matter stocks in forest soils – Detecting a legacy of historical charcoal production20
Effects of landscape composition and site land-use intensity on secondary succession in a tropical dry forest20
How future-proof is Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa) in a global change context?20
Does stoichiometric homeostasis differ among tree organs and with tree age?20
Effects of diversity, climate and litter on soil organic carbon storage in subtropical forests20
Microbial communities associated with decomposing deadwood of downy birch in a natural forest in Khibiny Mountains (Kola Peninsula, Russian Federation)20
Call for a collaborative management at Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Malaysia: An assessment from local stakeholders’ view point20
Effects of thinning on soil saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal fungi in a Korean larch plantation20
A global synthesis on the effects of thinning on hydrological processes: Implications for forest management20
Spatial distribution of tree species in mountain national parks depends on geomorphology and climate20
Moso bamboo invasion has contrasting effects on soil bacterial and fungal abundances, co-occurrence networks and their associations with enzyme activities in three broadleaved forests across subtropic20
Tree species mixture effects on stem growth vary with stand density – An analysis based on individual tree responses20
Soil ecoenzymatic stoichiometry and microbial resource limitation driven by thinning practices and season types in Larix principis-rupprechtii plantations in North China20
Above-ground carbon stocks and timber value of old timber plantations, secondary and primary forests in southern Ghana20
Susceptibility of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) to gene silencing through RNAi provides potential as a novel management tool19
Understanding genetic diversity of relict forests. Linking long-term isolation legacies and current habitat fragmentation in Abies pinsapo Boiss19
Elevated temperature and CO2 interactively modulate sexual competition and ecophysiological responses of dioecious Populus cathayana19
Contributions of National Key Forestry Ecology Projects to the forest vegetation carbon storage in China19
Detecting the effects of logging and wildfire on forest fuel structure using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS)19
Biochar mitigates the effect of nitrogen deposition on soil bacterial community composition and enzyme activities in a Torreya grandis orchard19
Changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen as affected by primary forest conversion19
Deadwood retention in forests lowers short-term browsing pressure on silver fir saplings by overabundant deer19
Heartwood variation of Eucalyptus urophylla is influenced by climatic conditions19
Genetic diversity of Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl.) in southern Brazilian Amazon19
Density-related effect of red deer browsing on palatable and unpalatable tree species and forest regeneration dynamics19
Differences in tree growth of Norway spruce under rotation forestry and continuous cover forestry19
Direct seeded and colonizing species guarantee successful early restoration of South Amazon forests19
Three decades of post-logging tree community recovery in naturally regenerating and actively restored dipterocarp forest in Borneo19
Multisite evaluation of the 3-PG model for the highest phenotypic plasticity Eucalyptus clone in Brazil19
Role of seed size and relative abundance in conspecific negative distance-dependent seedling mortality for eight tree species in a temperate forest19
Burn probability simulation and subsequent wildland fire activity in Alberta, Canada – Implications for risk assessment and strategic planning19
Developing a point process model for ecological risk assessment of pine wilt disease at multiple scales19
Using terrestrial laser scanning for characterizing tree structural parameters and their changes under different management in a Mediterranean open woodland19
Mixing effects on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) productivity along a climatic gradient across Europe19
How can the shade intolerant Korean pine survive under dense deciduous canopy?19
Forest management has reduced the structural diversity of residual boreal old-growth forest landscapes in Eastern Canada19
Successional pathways of terrestrial lichens in changing Swedish boreal forests19
Differences in phenolics produced by invasive Quercus rubra and native plant communities induced changes in soil microbial properties and enzymatic activity19
Impacts of tree mixtures on understory plant diversity in China19
Impacts of tree species identity and species mixing on ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks in a boreal forest19
A simple-to-use management approach to boost adaptive capacity of forests to global uncertainty19
Elevation-dependent growth trends of forests as affected by climate warming in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau18
Chemical fertility of forest ecosystems. Part 2: Towards redefining the concept by untangling the role of the different components of biogeochemical cycling18
Lidar biomass index: A novel solution for tree-level biomass estimation using 3D crown information18
Incorporating climate effects in Larix gmelinii improves stem taper models in the Greater Khingan Mountains of Inner Mongolia, northeast China18
Beyond trees: Mapping total aboveground biomass density in the Brazilian savanna using high-density UAV-lidar data18
Different sexual impacts of dioecious Populus euphratica on microbial communities and nitrogen cycle processes in natural forests18
Height growth rate of Scots pine in Central Europe increased by 29% between 1900 and 2000 due to changes in site productivity18
Short-term changes in soil functionality after wildfire and straw mulching in a Pinus halepensis M. forest18
Regeneration capacities of woody species biodiversity and soil properties in Miombo woodland after slash-and-burn agriculture in Mozambique18
Regeneration gap and microsite niche partitioning in a high alpine forest: Are Norway spruce seedlings more drought-tolerant than beech seedlings?18
Effects of various fertilization placements on the fate of urea-15N in moso bamboo forests18
Trends in active restoration of tropical dry forest: Methods, metrics, and outcomes18
Severe depletion of available deep soil water induced by revegetation on the arid and semiarid Loess Plateau18
Fire and land cover drive predator abundances in a pyric landscape18
Canopy structure and below-canopy temperatures interact to shape seedling response to disturbance in a Rocky Mountain subalpine forest18
Salvage logging reduces wild bee diversity, but not abundance, in severely burned mixed-conifer forest18
Changes in vegetation structure and composition of urban and rural forest patches in Baltimore from 1998 to 201518
A multi-point aggregation trend of the outbreak of pine wilt disease in China over the past 20 years18
Tree cavity abundance and beyond: Nesting and food storing sites of the pygmy owl in managed boreal forests18
Habitat disturbance can alter forest understory bird activity patterns: A regional-scale assessment with camera-traps18
Harvested opening size affects cohort development and failures in a second-growth northern hardwood forest18
Bark attributes determine variation in fire resistance in resprouting tree species18
Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) growth and defense in response to mountain pine beetle outbreaks18
Fire, flood and monodominance of Tabebuia aurea in Pantanal18
Canopy tree density and species influence tree regeneration patterns and woody species diversity in a longleaf pine forest18
Projecting species loss and turnover under climate change for 111 Chinese tree species18
Natural dynamics of temperate mountain beech-dominated primary forests in Central Europe18
Carbon-diversity hotspots and their owners in Brazilian southeastern Savanna, Atlantic Forest and Semi-Arid Woodland domains18
Legacy effects of emerald ash borer on riparian forest vegetation and structure18
Tree species identity drives soil organic carbon storage more than species mixing in major two-species mixtures (pine, oak, beech) in Europe18
Biochar amendment increases tree growth in nutrient-poor, young Scots pine stands in Finland18
Trees grow modulated by the ecological memory of their past growth. Consequences for monitoring, modelling, and silvicultural treatment18
Relative contributions of competition, stand structure, age, and climate factors to tree mortality of Chinese fir plantations: Long-term spacing trials in southern China18
Small gradients in salinity have large effects on stand water use in freshwater wetland forests17
Spatial patterns of precipitation-induced moisture availability and their effects on the divergence of conifer stem growth in the western and eastern parts of China’s semi-arid region17
Why some trees are more vulnerable during catastrophic cyclone events in the Sundarbans mangrove forest of Bangladesh?17
Vulnerability of small forest patches to fire in the Paraiba do Sul River Valley, southeast Brazil: Implications for restoration of the Atlantic Forest biome17
An ecological approach to climate change-informed tree species selection for reforestation17
Relations between forestry and reindeer husbandry in northern Finland – Perspectives of science and practice17
Subalpine fir mortality in Colorado is associated with stand density, warming climates and interactions among fungal diseases and the western balsam bark beetle17
Does individual-tree biomass growth increase continuously with tree size?17
Fire frequency affects fire behavior in open savannas of the Cerrado17
Comparison of field survey and remote sensing techniques for detection of bark beetle-infested trees17
Chemical fertility of forest ecosystems. Part 1: Common soil chemical analyses were poor predictors of stand productivity across a wide range of acidic forest soils17
Aboveground conservation acts in synergy with belowground uptake to alleviate phosphorus deficiency caused by nitrogen addition in a larch plantation17
Climate and water availability impacts on early growth and growth efficiency of Eucalyptus genotypes: The importance of GxE interactions17
Stand age related differences in forest microclimate17
Integration of WorldView-2 and airborne laser scanning data to classify defoliation levels in Quercus ilex L. Dehesas affected by root rot mortality: Management implications17
Non-native Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in Central Europe: Ecology, performance and nature conservation17
Landscape composition is more important than local vegetation structure for understory birds in cocoa agroforestry systems17
Minor increases in Phyllostachys edulis (Moso bamboo) biomass despite evident alterations of soil bacterial community structure after phosphorus fertilization alone: Based on field studies at differen17
Interactions between climate and soil shape tree community assembly and above-ground woody biomass of tropical dry forests17
Topography and fire legacies drive variable post-fire juvenile conifer regeneration in eastern Oregon, USA17
A nutritional mechanism underpinning folivore occurrence in disturbed forests17
Drought mitigation by thinning: Benefits from the stem to the stand along 15 years of experimental rainfall exclusion in a holm oak coppice17
Meiofaunal diversity in the Atlantic Forest soil: A quest for nematodes in a native reserve using eukaryotic metabarcoding analysis17
Degradation of the Brazilian Cerrado: Interactions with human disturbance and environmental variables17
Moderate effects of tree species identity on soil microbial communities and soil chemical properties in a common garden experiment17
Effects of chicken farming on soil organic carbon fractions and fungal communities in a Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) forest in subtropical China17
Tree plantations replacing natural grasslands in high biodiversity areas: How do they affect the mammal assemblage?17
Effects of forest management on bird assemblages in oak-dominated stands of the Western Carpathians – Refuges for rare species17
Long-term tree and stand growth dynamics after thinning of various intensities in a temperate mixed forest17
Mature forests hold maximum live biomass stocks17
Change in composition and function of microbial communities in an acid bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) plantation soil with the addition of three different biochars17
Comparing strategies for representing individual-tree secondary growth in mixed-species stands in the Acadian Forest region17
Tree breeding and silviculture: Douglas-fir volume gains with minimal wood quality loss under variable planting densities17
Disentangling mechanisms of early succession following harvest: Implications for climate change adaptation in Canada’s boreal-temperate forests16
Soil C:N:P stoichiometry of typical coniferous (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and/or evergreen broadleaved (Phoebe bournei) plantations in south China16
Decline in nutrient inputs from litterfall following forest plantation in subtropical China16
Strong influences of stand age and topography on post-fire understory recovery in a Chinese boreal forest16
Maternal effects should be considered in the establishment of forestry plantations16
A multi-proxy approach reveals common and species-specific features associated with tree defoliation in broadleaved species16
Contrasting successional responses of soil bacteria and fungi to post-logging burn severity16
Cultural values and forest dynamics: The Italian forests in the last 150 years16
The use of soil nutrient balances in deriving forest biomass harvesting guidelines specific to region, tree species and soil type in the Netherlands16
Density dependence and habitat heterogeneity regulate seedling survival in a North American temperate forest16
Disturbance-based silviculture for habitat diversification: Effects on forest structure, dynamics, and carbon storage16
Volume increment and carbon dynamics in boreal forest when extending the rotation length towards biologically old stands16
Successful seedling establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal-compared to ectomycorrhizal-associated hardwoods in arbuscular cedar plantations16
Mechanical thinning without prescribed fire moderates wildfire behavior in an Eastern Oregon, USA ponderosa pine forest16
Prescribed fire and natural canopy gap disturbances: Impacts on upland oak regeneration16
Temperature and precipitation significantly influence the interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and diazotrophs in karst ecosystems16
Black-backed woodpecker occupancy in burned and beetle-killed forests: Disturbance agent matters16
Managing existing forests can mitigate climate change16
A short-interval reburn catalyzes departures from historical structure and composition in a mesic mixed-conifer forest16
Sustainability of Brazilian forest concessions16
Juvenile thinning can effectively mitigate the effects of drought on tree growth and water consumption in a young Pinus contorta stand in the interior of British Columbia, Canada16
Eucalyptus tree stockings effect on water balance and use efficiency in subtropical sandy soil16
The frequency and severity of past droughts shape the drought sensitivity of juniper trees on the Tibetan plateau16
Tree growth responses to extreme drought after mechanical thinning and prescribed fire in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest, USA16
Wildfire impacts on water quality, macroinvertebrate, and trout populations in the Upper Rio Grande16
Ecological restoration guided by historical reference conditions can increase resilience to climate change of southwestern U.S. Ponderosa pine forests16
Optimizing neighborhood-based stand spatial structure: Four cases of boreal forests16
Precipitation influences on the net primary productivity of a tropical seasonal rainforest in Southwest China: A 9-year case study16
Inter-tree competitive processes during early growth of an experimental plantation of Eucalyptus pilularis in sub-tropical Australia16
Survival of prescribed burning treatments to wildfire in Portugal16
The soil fungal community of native woodland in Andean Patagonian forest: A case study considering experimental forest management and seasonal effects16
Multi-century reconstruction suggests complex interactions of climate and human controls of forest fire activity in a Karelian boreal landscape, North-West Russia16
Coarse root architecture: Neighbourhood and abiotic environmental effects on five tropical tree species growing in mixtures and monocultures16
Optimized forest planning: allocation of log storage yards in the Amazonian sustainable forest management area15
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), the suitable pioneer species for afforestation of reclamation sites?15
Differential ecological filtering across life cycle stages drive old-field succession in a neotropical dry forest15
Increasing climate sensitivity of subtropical conifers along an aridity gradient15
Inter-specific competition of tree congeners induces changes in crown architecture in Mediterranean pine mixtures15
Stories from common gardens: Water shortage differentially affects Nothofagus pumilio from contrasting precipitation regimes15
Herbicide, fertilization, and planting density effects on intensively managed loblolly pine early stand development15
Natural and human-related determinants of dead wood quantity and quality in a managed European lowland temperate forest15
The long-term performance of 35 tree species of sudanian West Africa in pure and mixed plantings15
Topographic variation in tree group and gap structure in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests with active fire regimes15
Ex situ conservation of Pinus koraiensis can preserve genetic diversity but homogenizes population structure15
Determinants of aboveground biomass in forests across three climatic zones in China15
Distance to forest, mammal and bird dispersal drive natural regeneration on degraded tropical peatland15
Nitrogen addition elevated autumn phosphorus retranslocation of living needles but not resorption in a nutrient-poor Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica plantation15
Trends in carnivore and ungulate fire ecology research in North American conifer forests15
Drought tolerance of a Pinus palustris plantation15
Quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess tree vigor and stand health in dry pine forests15
Biomass partitioning and allometric relations of the Reaumuria soongorica shrub in Alxa steppe desert in NW China15
Tree species richness, tree identity and non-native tree proportion affect arboreal spider diversity, abundance and biomass15
New insights into wood anatomy and function relationships: How Eucalyptus challenges what we already know15
Individual tree growth in jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest is explained by size and distance of neighbouring trees in thinned and non-thinned plots15
Effects of age and density of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica on soil moisture in the semiarid Mu Us Dunefield, northern China15
The effects of thinning management on bats and their insect prey in temperate broadleaved woodland15
Climate, drought and hydrology drive narrow-leaved ash growth dynamics in southern European riparian forests15
Developing a site index model for P. Pinaster stands in NW Spain by combining bi-temporal ALS data and environmental data15
Estimating crown width in degraded forest: A two-level nonlinear mixed-effects crown width model for Dacrydium pierrei and Podocarpus imbricatus in tropical China15
Perspectives: Key factors determining the presence of Tree-related Microhabitats: A synthesis of potential factors at site, stand and tree scales, with perspectives for further research15
Prediction of branch growth using quantile regression and mixed-effects models: An example with planted Larix olgensis Henry trees in Northeast China15
Changes in soil organic carbon and nutrient stocks in conventional selective logging versus reduced-impact logging in rainforests on highly weathered soils in Southern Cameroon15
White oak and red maple tree ring analysis reveals enhanced productivity in urban forest patches15
Effects of tree spacing and thinning on root reinforcement in mountain forests of the European Southern Alps15
Soil moisture influences on Sierra Nevada dead fuel moisture content and fire risks15
Water quality management dilemma: Increased nutrient, carbon, and heavy metal exports from forestry-drained peatlands restored for use as wetland buffer areas15
Current and future carbon stocks of natural forests in China15
Use of advanced modelling methods to estimate radiata pine productivity indices15
Satellite observations of forest resilience to hurricanes along the northern Gulf of Mexico15
Fine root biomass and necromass dynamics of Chinese fir plantations and natural secondary forests in subtropical China15
Quantifying the factors affecting wood decomposition across a tropical forest disturbance gradient15
Does the buffer width matter: Testing the effectiveness of forest certificates in the protection of headwater stream ecosystems15
The effect of ecological restoration methods on carbon stocks in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest15
Shifting tree species composition of upland oak forests alters leaf litter structure, moisture, and flammability15
Regulation of soil phosphorus availability and composition during forest succession in subtropics14
The growth of Chinese fir is limited by nitrogen: Evidences from N:P ratio, N or P variability and NuRE based on a regional investigation14
Species diversity and stand structural diversity of woody plants predominantly determine aboveground carbon stock of a dry Afromontane forest in Northern Ethiopia14
Pollinator communities vary with vegetation structure and time since management within regenerating timber harvests of the Central Appalachian Mountains14
Remotely sensed estimation of vegetation shifts in the polar and alpine tree-line ecotone in Finnish Lapland during the last three decades14
Canopy openness and exclusion of wild ungulates act synergistically to improve oak natural regeneration14
Biotic and abiotic drivers of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in a temperate rainforest14
Litter removal enhances soil N2O emissions: Implications for management of leaf-harvesting Cinnamomum camphora plantations14
Nonlinear mixed-effects height to crown base model based on both airborne LiDAR and field datasets for Picea crassifolia Kom trees in northwest China14
Northernmost European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus outbreak: Modelling tree mortality using remote sensing and climate data14
Interspecific plant competition increases soil labile organic carbon and nitrogen contents14
Post-harvesting silvicultural treatments in canopy logging gaps: Medium-term responses of commercial tree species under tending and enrichment planting14
Effects of elevation-dependent climate warming on intra- and inter-specific growth synchrony in mixed mountain forests14
Silvicultural options for open forest management in eastern North America14
Now or later? Optimal timing of mangrove rehabilitation under climate change uncertainty14
Tree regeneration in active and passive cloud forest restoration: Functional groups and timber species14
Seedling regeneration techniques affect root systems and the response of Quercus robur seedlings to water shortages14
Taxonomic and functional beta diversity of woody communities along Amazon forest succession: The relative importance of stand age, soil properties and spatial factor14
Effects of collaborative monitoring and adaptive management on restoration outcomes in dry conifer forests14
Assessing structural changes at the forest edge using kernel density estimation14
Mapping the stock and spatial distribution of aboveground woody biomass in the native vegetation of the Brazilian Cerrado biome14
Temperature thresholds for Eucalyptus genotypes growth across tropical and subtropical ranges in South America14
Stand structural attributes and functional trait composition overrule the effects of functional divergence on aboveground biomass during Amazon forest succession14
Species-specific growth and transpiration response to changing environmental conditions in floodplain forest14
Microclimatic refugia in riparian woodland: A climate change adaptation strategy14
Effects of climate on the growth of Swiss uneven-aged forests: Combining >100 years of observations with the 3-PG model14
Long-term ecological trends of small secondary forests of the atlantic forest hotspot: A 30-year study case14
Year-to-year crown condition poorly contributes to ring width variations of beech trees in French ICP level I network14
Mangrove restoration in Colombia: Trends and lessons learned14
Differences in leaf physiology among juvenile pines and oaks following high-severity wildfire in an Arizona Sky Island Mountain range14
The effect of the ‘Las Maquinas’ wildfire of 2017 on the hydrologic balance of a high conservation value Hualo (Nothofagus glauca (Phil.) Krasser) forest in central Chile14
Regeneration growth and crown architecture of European beech and silver fir depend on gap characteristics and light gradient in the mixed montane old-growth stands14
Tree-size dimension inequality shapes aboveground carbon stock across temperate forest strata along environmental gradients14
What determines the effectiveness of Pinyon-Juniper clearing treatments? Evidence from the remote sensing archive and counter-factual scenarios14
The millennium shift: Investigating the relationship between environment and growth trends of Norway spruce and Scots pine in northern Europe14
Plant species composition and diversity along successional gradients in arid and semi-arid regions of China14
Prioritizing landscape connectivity of a tropical forest biodiversity hotspot in global change scenario14
Evaluation of four regression techniques for stem taper modeling of Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii) in Northeastern China14
The effect of coppicing on insect biodiversity. Small-scale mosaics of successional stages drive community turnover14
Contrasting water use of two Eucalyptus clones across a precipitation and temperature gradient in Brazil14
Predictors of diversity of deadwood-dwelling macrofungi in a European natural forest14
Divergent, age-associated fungal communities of Pinus flexilis and Pinus longaeva14
Responses of nitrogen metabolism, photosynthetic parameter and growth to nitrogen fertilization inCyclocarya paliurus14
Sex-specific interactions shape root phenolics and rhizosphere microbial communities in Populus cathayana14
Are the rhizosphere fungal communities of Nothofagus alpina established in two different environments influenced by plant genetic diversity?14
Brazil’s forest restoration, biomass and carbon stocks: A critical review of the knowledge gaps14
Using machine learning to synthesize spatiotemporal data for modelling DBH-height and DBH-height-age relationships in boreal forests14
Wild bees benefit from structural complexity enhancement in a forest restoration experiment14
Effects of drip irrigation and nitrogen fertigation on stand growth and biomass allocation in young triploid Populus tomentosa plantations14
Native broadleaf tree species stimulate topsoil nutrient transformation by changing microbial community composition and physiological function, but not biomass in subtropical plantations with low P st14
Generalized model for plantation production of Eucalyptus grandis and hybrids for genotype-site-management applications14
Single dead trees matter: Small-scale canopy gaps increase the species richness, diversity and abundance of birds breeding in a temperate deciduous forest14
Determining the optimal rotations of larch plantations when multiple carbon pools and wood products are valued14
Carbon allocation dynamics in conifers and broadleaved tree species revealed by pulse labeling and mass balance14
Distribution of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. in northern Spain: Contemporary cover, suitable habitat and potential expansion under climate change14
Integrated plant diversity hotspots and long-term stable conservation strategies in the unique karst area of southern China under global climate change14
The blame game: Using eDNA to identify species-specific tree browsing by red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in a temperate forest13
Vegetation structure and temporality influence the dominance, diversity, and composition of forest acoustic communities13
Bedrock type drives forest carbon storage and uptake across the mid-Atlantic Appalachian Ridge and Valley, U.S.A.13
Evaluating the effects of nitrogen and sulfur deposition and ozone on tree growth and mortality in California using a spatially comprehensive forest inventory13
Wild boar grubbing causes organic carbon loss from both top- and sub-soil in an oak forest in central China13
Genetic variation in resin yield and covariation with tree growth in maritime pine13
From mixtures to monocultures: Bird assemblage responses along a production forest conifer-broadleaf gradient13
Temporary grazing exclusion as a passive restoration strategy in a dryland woodland: Effects over time on tree regeneration and on the shrub community13
Variable selection for estimating individual tree height using genetic algorithm and random forest13
Do large herbivores maintain open habitats in temperate forests?13
Effects of simulated sea level rise on stocks and sources of soil organic carbon in Kandelia obovata mangrove forests13
Wildfire and forest thinning shift floral resources and nesting substrates to impact native bee biodiversity in ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range13
Regulation of stand density alters forest structure and soil moisture during afforestation with Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. On the Loess Plateau13
Non-linear regional weather-growth relationships indicate limited adaptability of the eastern Baltic Scots pine13
Using the Pneumatic method to estimate embolism resistance in species with long vessels: A commentary on the article “A comparison of five methods to assess embolism resistance in trees”13
Development rates and persistence of the microhabitats initiated by disease and injuries in live trees: A review13
Changes in forest structure values along the natural cycle and different management strategies in Nothofagus antarctica forests13
Clonal integration driven by source-sink relationships is constrained by rhizome branching architecture in a running bamboo species (Phyllostachys glauca): A 15N assessment in the field13
An old-growth subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest suffered more damage from Typhoon Mangkhut than an adjacent secondary forest13
Identifying mechanisms shaping lichen functional diversity in a primeval forest13
Post-harvest forest herb layer demography: General patterns are driven by pre-disturbance conditions13
Growth and resource allocation of juvenile European beech and sycamore maple along light availability gradients in uneven-aged forests13
Hydraulic limitation underlies the dieback of Populus pseudo-simonii trees in water-limited areas of northern China13
Effects of long-term and large-scale ecology projects on forest dynamics in Yangtze River Basin, China13
Height growth-related competitiveness of oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. and Quercus robur L.) under climate change in Central Europe. Is silvicultural assistance still required in mixed-species s13
What is good for birds is not always good for lichens: Interactions between forest structure and species richness in managed boreal forests13
Additional carbon sequestration potential of abandoned agricultural land afforestation in the boreal zone: A modelling approach13
Climate warming predispose sessile oak forests to drought-induced tree mortality regardless of management legacies13
Formerly coppiced old growth stands act as refugia of threatened biodiversity in a managed steppic oak forest13
Impacts of organic matter removal and vegetation control on nutrition and growth of Douglas-fir at three Pacific Northwestern Long-Term Soil Productivity sites13
The effects of nutrient limitations on microbial respiration and organic matter decomposition in a Florida Spodosol as influenced by historical forest management practices13
Interventions have limited effects on the population dynamics of Ips typographus and its natural enemies in the Western Carpathians (Central Europe)13
The resilience of the carbon cycles of temperate coniferous and broadleaved forests to drought13
Drivers of forest regeneration patterns in drought prone mixed-species forests in the Northern Calcareous Alps13
Pervasive tree-growth reduction in Tibetan juniper forests13
Perspectives: Thirty years of triad forestry, a critical clarification of theory and recommendations for implementation and testing13
Shifting tree species composition affects biodiversity of multiple taxa in Central European forests13
Pinus sylvestris L. and Fagus sylvatica L. effects on soil and root properties and their interactions in a mixed forest on the Southwestern Pyrenees13
Identification of drought-tolerant tree species through climate sensitivity analysis of radial growth in Central European mixed broadleaf forests13
Role of thinning intensity in creating mixed hardwood and conifer forests within a Cryptomeria japonica conifer plantation: A 14-year study13
Climate and genotype influences on carbon fluxes and partitioning in Eucalyptus plantations13
Contrasts in xylem hydraulics and water use underlie the sorting of different sand-fixing shrub species to early and late stages of dune stabilization13
Relevance of secondary tropical forest for landscape restoration13
Forest composition, fuel loading, and soil chemistry resulting from 50 years of forest management and natural disturbance in two southeastern Coastal Plain watersheds, USA13