Marine Geology

(The TQCC of Marine Geology is 8. The table below lists those papers that are above that threshold based on CrossRef citation counts [max. 250 papers]. The publications cover those that have been published in the past four years, i.e., from 2020-07-01 to 2024-07-01.)
Contourites and bottom current reworked sands: Bed facies model and implications56
Climate and human battle for dominance over the Yellow River's sediment discharge: From the Mid-Holocene to the Anthropocene56
Yield stress measurements of mud sediments using different rheological methods and geometries: An evidence of two-step yielding39
Contourite and mixed turbidite-contourite systems in the Mozambique Channel (SW Indian Ocean): Link between geometry, sediment characteristics and modelled bottom currents39
Impact of river discharge on hydrodynamics and sedimentary processes at Yellow River Delta37
Spectral features of dual-frequency multibeam echosounder data for benthic habitat mapping35
Automatic shoreline extraction and change detection: A study on the southeast coast of Bangladesh34
Comparing impact effects of common storms and Medicanes along the coast of south-eastern Sicily33
Environmental evolution of the East China Sea inner shelf and its constraints on pyrite sulfur contents and isotopes since the last deglaciation32
The modern Yellow River Delta in transition: Causes and implications30
Characterisation of seafloor substrate using advanced processing of multibeam bathymetry, backscatter, and sidescan sonar in Table Bay, South Africa29
Phase change in evolution of the modern Huanghe (Yellow River) Delta: Process, pattern, and mechanisms28
Sediment budget and morphological change in the Red River Delta under increasing human interferences28
Inter-comparison of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages between different fractions of Holocene deposits from the Yangtze delta and its environmental implications27
A rules-based shoreface translation and sediment budgeting tool for estimating coastal change: ShoreTrans27
Submarine morphology of the Comoros volcanic archipelago27
Deep learning model for seabed sediment classification based on fuzzy ranking feature optimization27
Carbon and nutrient accumulation in tropical mangrove creeks, Amazon region27
Critical role of wave–seabed interactions in the extensive erosion of Yellow River estuarine sediments26
Low-temperature, shallow-water hydrothermal vent mineralization following the recent submarine eruption of Tagoro volcano (El Hierro, Canary Islands)26
Morphodynamic evolution of the macrotidal Sittaung River estuary, Myanmar: Tidal versus seasonal controls25
Evaluation of along-channel sediment flux gradients in an anthropocene estuary with an estuarine dam25
Extreme floods of the Changjiang River over the past two millennia: Contributions of climate change and human activity25
Complex response of weathering intensity registered in the Andaman Sea sediments to the Indian Summer Monsoon over the last 40 kyr24
Surfzone-beach-dune interactions along a variable low wave energy dissipative beach24
Seismic stratigraphic framework and depositional history for Cretaceous and Cenozoic contourite depositional systems of the Mozambique Channel, SW Indian Ocean24
Modeling of the Dec. 22nd 2018 Anak Krakatau volcano lateral collapse and tsunami based on recent field surveys: Comparison with observed tsunami impact24
Discovery of a giant cold-water coral mound province along the northern Argentine margin and its link to the regional Contourite Depositional System and oceanographic setting23
Probabilistic mapping of earthquake-induced submarine landslide susceptibility in the South-West Iberian margin23
Tunnel valleys of the central and northern North Sea (56°N to 62°N): Distribution and characteristics22
Refined chronostratigraphy of a late Quaternary Sedimentary sequence from the Yangtze River delta based on K-feldspar luminescence dating22
Geomorphological and stratigraphic evolution of a fluvial incision in the coastal plain and inner continental shelf in southern Brazil22
Sea-level fall and coastal water cooling during the Late Holocene in Southeastern Brazil based on vermetid bioconstructions22
Sedimentary records of mid-Holocene coastal flooding at a Neolithic site on the southeast plain of Hangzhou Bay, east China22
Impact of Typhoon Chan-hom on sediment dynamics and morphological changes on the East China Sea inner shelf21
Shallow gas and gas hydrate occurrences on the northwest Greenland shelf margin21
Suspended particulate matter in a submarine canyon (Whittard Canyon, Bay of Biscay, NE Atlantic Ocean): Assessment of commonly used instruments to record turbidity21
Isotopic and sedimentary signature of megathrust ruptures along the Japan subduction margin21
Impact of cold water mass on suspended sediment transport in the South Yellow Sea20
Provenance and weathering of sediments in the deep basin of the northern South China Sea during the last 38 kyr19
Magnetic evidence for Yellow River sediment in the late Holocene deposit of the Yangtze River Delta, China19
Assessing the response of the Great Marsh to sea-level rise: Migration, submersion or survival19
The erosive power of the Malvinas Current: Influence of bottom currents on morpho-sedimentary features along the northern Argentine margin (SW Atlantic Ocean)19
Laboratory investigation on morphology response of submerged artificial sandbar and its impact on beach evolution under storm wave condition19
On the mechanism behind the shift of the turbidity maximum zone in response to reclamations in the Yangtze (Changjiang) Estuary, China18
Holocene evolution of the Ninety Mile Beach sand barrier, Victoria, Australia: The role of sea level, sediment supply and climate.18
Sediment budget of the Yellow River delta during 1959–2012, estimated from morphological changes and accumulation rates18
Evolution of the Glorieuses seamount in the SW Indian Ocean and surrounding deep Somali Basin since the Cretaceous18
Early diagenesis and accumulation of redox-sensitive elements in East Siberian Arctic Shelves18
Nearshore sediment pathways and potential sediment budgets in embayed settings over a multi-annual timescale18
Stratigraphic evolution of the Nakdong River valley in response to late Quaternary sea-level changes18
Post-LGM multi-proxy sedimentary record of bottom-current variability and downslope sedimentary processes in a contourite drift of the Gela Basin (Strait of Sicily)18
Clumped isotope geochemistry of island carbonates in the South China Sea: Implications for early diagenesis and dolomitization17
Sedimentary pyrites and C/S ratios of mud sediments on the East China Sea inner shelf indicate late Pleistocene-Holocene environmental evolution17
Facies model on the modern isolated carbonate platform in the Xisha Archipelago, South China Sea17
A tsunami deposit at Anse Meunier, Martinique Island: Evidence of the 1755 CE Lisbon tsunami and implication for hazard assessment17
Paleoclimatic responses in the tropical Indian Ocean to regional monsoon and global climate change over the last 42 kyr17
Predicting beach rotation using multiple atmospheric indices17
Messinian West Alboran Sea record in the proximity of Gibraltar: Early signs of Atlantic-Mediterranean gateway restriction17
Highly accelerated siltation of abandoned distributary channel in the Yangtze Delta under everchanging social-ecological dynamics16
The relationship between organoclastic sulfate reduction and carbonate precipitation/dissolution in marine sediments16
Winding down the Chicxulub impact: The transition between impact and normal marine sedimentation near ground zero16
Holocene vs Anthropocene sedimentary records in a human-altered estuary: The Pasaia case (northern Spain)16
Sediment accumulation rates and vertical mixing of deep-sea sediments derived from14C and 210Pb in the southern Gulf of Mexico16
Characterizing ancient and modern hydrothermal venting systems16
DNN-based seabed classification using differently weighted MBES multifeatures16
Tectonic evolution, geomorphology and influence of bottom currents along a large submarine canyon system: The São Vicente Canyon (SW Iberian margin)16
Sediment transport mechanisms in altered depositional environments of the Anthropocene Nakdong Estuary: A numerical modeling study16
Giant sand waves on the Taiwan Banks, southern Taiwan Strait: Distribution, morphometric relationships, and hydrologic influence factors in a tide-dominated environment16
A ~130 ka terrestrial-marine interaction sedimentary history of the northern Jiangsu coastal plain in China15
Marine sediment sustains the accretion of a mixed fluvial-tidal delta15
Mid-to-late Holocene upper slope contourite deposits off Capo Vaticano (Mediterranean Sea): High-resolution record of contourite cyclicity, bottom current variability and sandy facies15
Anomalous compaction due to silica diagenesis — Textural and mineralogical evidence from hemipelagic deep-sea sediments of the Japan Sea15
On the architecture of intra-formational Mass-Transport Deposits: Insights from the carbonate slopes of Great Bahama Bank and the Apulian Carbonate Platform15
Boosting riverine sediment by artificial flood in the Yellow River and the implication for delta restoration15
Modelling flocculation: Towards an integration in large-scale sediment transport models15
Microbial diversity in fracture and pore filling gas hydrate-bearing sediments at Site GMGS2-16 in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, the South China Sea15
Seismic record of a cyclic turbidite-contourite system in the Northern Campos Basin, SE Brazil14
River avulsions and sedimentary evolution of the Luanhe fan-delta system (North China) since the late Pleistocene14
Continental slope and rise geomorphology seaward of the Totten Glacier, East Antarctica (112°E-122°E)14
Formation of the Zeebrugge coastal turbidity maximum: The role of uncertainty in near-bed exchange processes14
Internal tides as a major process in Amazon continental shelf fine sediment transport14
Seasonal variation of floc population influenced by the presence of algae in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary14
A single-stage megaflood at the termination of the Messinian salinity crisis: Geophysical and modelling evidence from the eastern Mediterranean Basin13
Field observations of turbulence, sediment suspension, and transport under breaking tidal bores13
Depocenter shift and en-echelon shoal development in the pre-Holocene incised valley of the Yangtze Delta, China13
Palynological evidence for Early to Mid-Holocene sea-level fluctuations over the present-day Ningshao Coastal Plain in eastern China13
The multi-decadal morphodynamic changes of the mouth bar in a mixed fluvial-tidal estuarine channel13
Holocene evolution and Anthropocene destruction of the Krishna Delta on the east coast of India: Delta lobe shifts, human impacts, and sea-level history13
Ice events along the East Siberian continental margin during the last two glaciations: Evidence from clay minerals13
Early development of carbonate platform (Xisha Islands) in the northern South China Sea13
Net suspended sediment transport modulated by multiple flood-ebb asymmetries in the progressive tidal wave dominated and partially stratified Changjiang Estuary13
Geochemical signatures of intense episodic anaerobic oxidation of methane in near-surface sediments of a recently discovered cold seep (Kveithola trough, NW Barents Sea)13
Sedimentary evolution of a delta-margin mangrove in Can Gio, northeastern Mekong River delta, Vietnam13
Holocene sea-surface temperatures and related coastal upwelling regime recorded by vermetid assemblages, southeastern Brazil (Arraial do Cabo, RJ)12
Relative sea-level stability and the radiocarbon marine reservoir correction at Natuna Island, Indonesia, since 6400 yr BP12
Estimating drawdown magnitudes of the Mediterranean Sea in the Levant basin during the Lago Mare stage of the Messinian Salinity Crisis12
Linkage between turbulent kinetic energy, waves and suspended sediment concentrations in the nearshore zone12
Sediment distribution and dispersal in the southern South China Sea: Evidence from clay minerals and magnetic properties12
Oceanic crustal structures and temporal variations of magmatic budget during seafloor spreading in the East Sub-basin of the South China Sea12
Relict and contemporary influences on the postglacial geomorphology and evolution of a current swept shelf: The Eastern Cape Coast, South Africa12
Bottom current-controlled Quaternary sedimentation at the foot of the Malta Escarpment (Ionian Basin, Mediterranean)12
Sediment distribution along the fluvial to marine transition zone of the Dong Nai River System, southern Vietnam12
The contribution of sand and mud to infilling of tidal basins in response to a closure dam12
Latest Pleistocene to Holocene stratigraphic record and evolution of the Paleo-Mekong incised valley, Vietnam12
Volcanic and tectonic features of Shirahama Bank in the northern Ryukyu Arc: Implications for cross-arc volcanism controlled by arc-parallel extension12
A comparison study on the sediment flocculation process between a bare tidal flat and a clam aquaculture mudflat: The important role of sediment concentration and biological processes12
Coastal chalk cliff retreat rates during the Holocene, inferred from submarine platform morphology and cosmogenic exposure along the Normandy coast (NW France)12
Pore structure changes induced by hydrate dissociation: An example of the unconsolidated clayey-silty hydrate bearing sediment reservoir in the South China Sea12
Laboratory investigation of coastal beach erosion processes under storm waves of slowly varying height12
Neglected role of continental circulation in cross-shelf sediment transport: Implications for paleoclimate reconstructions12
Seasonal changes in river-tide dynamics in a highly human-modified estuary: Modaomen Estuary case study12
Drastic hydrographic changes inferred from radiolarian assemblages in the central Japan Sea since the Last Glacial Maximum12
Early to mid-Holocene sedimentary evolution on the southeastern coast of Hangzhou Bay, East China, in response to sea-level change11
Assessing vermetid reefs as indicators of past sea levels in the Mediterranean11
Physical processes controlling mud depocenter development on continental shelves – Geological, oceanographic, and modeling concepts11
Incorporating temporal and spatial variability of salt-marsh foraminifera into sea-level reconstructions11
Late Quaternary multi-genetic processes and products on the northern Gulf of Cadiz upper continental slope (SW Iberian Peninsula)11
Effects of Holocene climate changes and anthropogenic river regulation in the development of a wave-dominated delta: The São Francisco River (eastern Brazil)11
Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics and ore-forming mechanism of hydrothermal sediments in the middle and southern Okinawa Trough11
Stratigraphy of deep-sea marine sediment using paleomagnetic secular variation: Refined dating of turbidite relating to giant earthquake in Japan Trench11
Coastal dune dynamics in embayed settings with sea-level rise – Examples from the exposed and macrotidal north coast of SW England11
Geochemical comparison of ikaite and methane-derived authigenic carbonates recovered from Echigo Bank in the Sea of Japan11
Satellite-based shoreline detection along high-energy macrotidal coasts and influence of beach state11
Regime shifts in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary: The role of concentrated benthic suspensions11
A 100-km wide slump along the upper slope of the Canadian Arctic was likely preconditioned for failure by brackish pore water flushing11
Temperature–time relationships and their implications for thermal history and modelling of silica diagenesis in deep-sea sediments11
Sedimentary transition of the Yangtze subaqueous delta during the past century: Inspiration for delta response to future decline of sediment supply11
Sediment provenance and tidal current-driven recycling of Yellow River detritus in the Bohai Sea, China11
Large-scale margin collapses along a partly drowned, isolated carbonate platform (Lansdowne Bank, SW Pacific Ocean)11
Sediment dynamics and morphological evolution in the Tagus Estuary inlet11
Integrating observational targets and instrumental data on rock coasts through snorkel surveys: A methodological approach10
Linking oceanographic processes to contourite features: Numerical modelling of currents influencing a contourite depositional system on the northern South China Sea margin10
Fault-controlled contourite drifts in the southern South China Sea: Tectonic, oceanographic, and conceptual implications10
Geomorphic and temporal evolution of a Mississippi delta flanking barrier island: Grand Isle, LA10
Climate-driven provenance variation and sedimentary system evolution at the Changjiang distal mud since the mid-Holocene10
Half a century of morphological change in the Haringvliet and Grevelingen ebb-tidal deltas (SW Netherlands) - Impacts of large-scale engineering 1964–201510
Characteristics of terrigenous components of Amerasian Arctic Ocean surface sediments: Implications for reconstructing provenance and transport modes10
Intermediate and deep ocean current circulation in the Mozambique Channel: New insights from ferromanganese crust Nd isotopes10
Paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic variability in the Western Mediterranean during the last 25 cal. kyr BP. New insights from contourite drifts10
Cretaceous to Cenozoic controls on the genesis of the shelf-incising Perth Canyon; insights from a two-part geomorphology mapping approach10
Provenance constraints on the Cretaceous-Paleocene erosional history of the Guiana Shield as determined from the geochemistry of clay-size fraction of sediments from the Arapaima-1 well (Guyana-Surina10
Rapid humidity changes across the Northern South China Sea during the last ~40 kyrs10
Present-day infralittoral prograding wedges (IPWs) in Central-Eastern Tyrrhenian Sea: Critical issues and challenges to their use as geomorphological indicators of sea level10
87Sr/86Sr of coral reef carbonate strata as an indicator of global sea level fall: Evidence from a 928.75-m-long core in the South China Sea10
Deep-sea bottom currents influencing tracemaker community: An ichnological study from the NW Iberian margin10
Reconstructing ice conditions in the southern Chukchi Sea during the last millennium based on chemical composition of sediments and diatom assemblages10
Evolution of a single incised valley related to inherited geology, sea level rise and climate changes during the Holocene (Tirso river, Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea)10
Sediment export and impacts associated with river delta channelization compound estuary vulnerability to sea-level rise, Skagit River Delta, Washington, USA10
Distribution, morphology and composition of mesophotic ‘reefs’ on the Amazon Continental Margin10
Quaternary sediment dispersal in the Zambezi turbidite system (SW Indian Ocean)10
Sedimentary stacking pattern of plastered drifts: An example from the Cenozoic on the Uruguayan continental slope10
Combining Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 to investigate seasonal changes of suspended particulate matter off the abandoned distributary mouths of Yellow River Delta10
Increasing terrigenous pollen input in the late Holocene: Indications of intensive human activity and accelerated delta plain progradation9
Architecture of a magma poor passive margin – Insights from the Somali margin9
Frequency of deep-sea turbidity as an important component of the response of a source-to-sink system to climate: A case study in the eastern middle Bengal Fan since 32 ka9
Submarine topography-related spatial variability of the southern Taiwan Strait sands (East Asia)9
Response of a wave-dominated coastline and delta to antecedent conditioning and fluctuating rates of postglacial sea-level rise9
Influence of antecedent geology on the Holocene formation and evolution of Horn Island, Mississippi, USA9
Magnetic fingerprints of surface sediment in the Bohai Sea, China9
Holocene coral reef development in Chenhang Island, Northern South China Sea, and its record of sea level changes9
Origin and evolution of tidal depressions in a tidal flat and their role in carbon sequestration in the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina)9
The Guadiaro-Baños contourite drifts (SW Mediterranean). A geotechnical approach to stability analysis9
Late Miocene contourite depositional system of the Gulf of Cádiz: The sedimentary signature of the paleo-Mediterranean Outflow Water9
The precision and accuracy of measuring micro-scale erosion on shore platforms9
Primary deposition and early diagenetic effects on the high saturation accumulation of gas hydrate in a silt dominated reservoir in the Gulf of Mexico9
Quantitative reconstruction of Holocene sediment source variations in the Yellow and northern East China Seas and their forcings9
Transport of fine-grained sediment in oceanic currents: Holocene supply to sediment drifts around Flemish Cap by the Labrador Current9
Response of trophic structure and isotopic niches of the food web to flow regime in the Yellow River estuary9
Sedimentary geochemical records of late Miocene-early Pliocene palaeovegetation and palaeoclimate evolution in the Ying-Qiong Basin, South China Sea9
A machine-learning derived model of seafloor sediment accumulation9
Influences of tropical monsoon climatology on the delivery and dispersal of organic carbon over the Upper Gulf of Thailand9
Seismic evidence for crustal architecture and stratigraphy of the Limpopo Corridor: New insights into the evolution of the sheared margin offshore southern Mozambique9
Potential and limitation of 230Th-excess as a chronostratigraphic tool for late Quaternary Arctic Ocean sediment studies: An example from the Southern Lomonosov Ridge9
Seismic reconstruction of seafloor sediment deformation during volcanic debris avalanche emplacement offshore Sakar, Papua New Guinea9
Paleoenvironmental implications of Sr and Nd isotopes variability over the past 48 ka from the southern Sea of Japan9
Distribution and origin of submarine landslides in the active margin of the southern Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean Sea)9
Depositional and erosional signatures in sedimentary successions on the continental slope and rise off Prydz Bay, East Antarctica– implications for Pliocene paleoclimate9
Quantitative reconstruction of Holocene ground displacements in the offshore part of the Campi Flegrei caldera (southern Italy): Perspectives from seismo-stratigraphic and archaeological data9
Relationships between volcanism and plate tectonics: A case-study from the Canterbury Basin, New Zealand9
Fluid seepage associated with slope destabilization along the Zambezi margin (Mozambique)8
Geochemical characterization of deep-sea sediments on the Azores Plateau – From diagenesis to hydrothermal activity8
Different types of gravity-driven flow deposits and associated bedforms in the Upper Bengal Fan, offshore Myanmar8
Pleistocene depositional environments and links to cryosphere-ocean interactions on the eastern Ross Sea continental slope, Antarctica (IODP Hole U1525A)8
Mixing depths and sediment accumulation rates on an arid tropical shelf based on fine-fraction 210Pb analysis8
Disturbed climate changes preserved in terrigenous sediments associated with anthropogenic activities during the last century in the Taiwan Strait, East Asia8
Basal shear zones of recurrent mass transport deposits serve as potential reservoirs for gas hydrates in the Central Canyon area, South China Sea8
Monitoring of a sediment plume produced by a deep-sea mining test in shallow water, Málaga Bight, Alboran Sea (southwestern Mediterranean Sea)8
Sedimentary records of mid-Holocene extreme storm events on the north bank of Hangzhou Bay, East China8
Using multiple environmental proxies and hydrodynamic modeling to investigate Late Holocene climate and coastal change within a large Gulf of Mexico estuarine system (Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA)8
Morphological responses of unsheltered channel-shoal system to a major storm: The combined effects of surges, wind-driven currents and waves8
The double structure of the Estuarine Turbidity Maximum in the Cam-Nam Trieu mesotidal tropical estuary, Vietnam8
Decadal-scale subaerial beach and dune evolution at Duck, North Carolina8
Reconstructing a late Neolithic extreme storm event on the southern Yangtze coast, East China, based on sedimentary records and numerical modeling8
Width variation around submarine channel bends: Implications for sedimentation and channel evolution8
Astronomical dating of Quaternary strata in the South Yellow Sea and its indication for paleoclimatic evolution8
Volcanic ash inputs enhance the deep-sea seabed metal-biogeochemical cycle: A case study in the Yap Trench, western Pacific Ocean8
Mass-wasting processes input in proximal metalliferous sediments: A case study of the Pobeda hydrothermal fields8
Iron, copper, and zinc isotopic fractionation in seafloor basalts and hydrothermal sulfides8
Variation in sedimentary 210Pb over the last 60 years in the Yangtze River Estuary: New insight to the sedimentary processes8
Role of rainfall-induced runoff discharge and human disturbance on the morphodynamics and sedimentation in the semienclosed macrotidal flats (Shinsi tidal flats, Korea)8
Morphodynamic response of sand waves in the Taiwan Shoal to a passing tropical storm8
Tectonic characteristics of the Eratosthenes Seamount and its periphery: Implications for evolution of the eastern Mediterranean8
A laboratory study on the behavior of estuarine sediment flocculation as function of salinity, EPS and living algae8
Linking fracturing and rock mechanic properties to the erosion of a beachrock shore platform8
Submarine geomorphology, tectonic features and mass wasting processes in the archipelago of San Andres, Providencia and Santa Catalina (western Caribbean)8
Grain size and beach face slope on paraglacial beaches of New England, USA8
Seismic stratigraphic framework of the continental shelf offshore Delmarva, U.S.A.: Implications for Mid-Atlantic Bight Evolution since the Pliocene8
The Late-Quaternary deposits of the Piedra Buena Terrace (Patagonian continental slope, SW Atlantic): An example of interaction between bottom currents and seafloor morphology8
Post-rift submarine volcanic complexes and fault activities in the Baiyun Sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin: New insights into the breakup sequence of the northern South China Sea8
Structural controls on slope evolution and sediment dispersal pathways along the northern Tanzania continental margin, western Indian Ocean8
Stratigraphic and three-dimensional morphological evolution of the late Quaternary sequences in the western Bohai Sea, China: Controls related to eustasy, high sediment supplies and neotectonics8
Geochemical characterization of a marine sediment core from the Joides Basin, Ross Sea, Antarctica8
Modelling the development of dynamic equilibrium on shore platforms8
Glaciomarine sediment deposition on the continental slope and rise of the central Ross Sea since the Last Glacial Maximum8
Modern dynamics, morphology and habitats of slope-confined canyons on the northwest Australian margin8
Changes in sedimentary provenance and climate off the coast of Northeast Brazil since the Last Interglacial8
Geomorphological control of sandy beaches by a mixed-energy tidal inlet8
Comparison of cold season sedimentation dynamics in the non-tidal estuary of the Northern Baltic Sea8
Morphological controls and statistical modelling of boulder transport by extreme storms8
Post-rift magmatism and hydrothermal activity in the central offshore Otway Basin and implications for igneous plumbing systems8
Characterization of the sediments in a gas hydrate reservoir in the northern South China Sea: Implications for gas hydrate accumulation8